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Announcement from Editorial office:

Special issue scheduled to be published in Spring, 2016. The guest editor: Prof. Li-Ching Wu. Please email us your cover letter and manuscript to bmst@mdtcanada.ca (prepared following guidelines).

We also accept Commentaries, Letters and Regular Research manuscripts submission for volume 4, scheduled to be published in Fall, 2016. Please email us your cover letter and manuscript to bmst@mdtcanada.ca (prepared following guidelines).

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Current Issue

Volume 2: December 25, 2015

EDITORIAL

Writing an article “to be open access published”

LETTERS

Second Quantization Approach to Stochastic Epidemic Models

REGULAR ARTICLES

Analyzing Inverse Symmetry with Original and Terminal Sites of Prokaryotic Genome

Development of a Method and its Validation for Estimation of Pregabaline in Pharmaceutical and Bulk Formulation

Evolutionary Tree Based on Oligonucleotide Frequencies and Conserved Words in 16S and 18S Ribosomal RNA

Rural-urban migration on childhood risk of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) among under-5 children

CoverFigure.jpg

About the cover

EDITORIAL


Writing an article “to be open access published”
Md Ashrafuzzaman
e7 |

Biomedical Sciences Today publishes articles fully open and fully free to access. This brings opportunities on one side for authors to reach out to all readers irrespective of their affiliations, geographical locations and financial conditions. On the other side the readers read and learn from authors at no cost and facing no conditional barriers other than their own possible academic condition. This brings a real challenge on authors to shape their findings in a manner so that those may reach at many general type of readers going often beyond the circle of narrow academic fields. Through these articles the authors update the progresses in their fields as well as often help attract new students, academicians, industry researchers and even occasionally completely new but highly interested, motivated free thinking pupils/personnels to their fields and possibly trying to move to these areas. Writing open access articles therefore puts extra responsibilities and challenges on authors. ...(PDF)

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LETTERS


Second Quantization Approach to Stochastic Epidemic Models
Leonardo Mondaini
e8 |

We show how the standard field theoretical language based on creation and annihilation operators may be used for a straightforward derivation of closed master equations describing the population dynamics of multivariate stochastic epidemic models. In order to do that, we introduce an SIR-inspired stochastic model for hepatitis C virus epidemic, from which we obtain the time evolution of the mean number of susceptible, infected, recovered and chronically infected individuals in a population whose total size is allowed to change. (PDF)

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REGULAR ARTICLES


Analyzing Inverse Symmetry with Original and Terminal Sites of Prokaryotic Genome
Tzu-Ting Hsu and Hoong-Chien Lee
e9 |

The segmental duplication has long been known to be a major mechanism for genome growth and evolution. Beyond that, the large-scale genomic duplication is important in the evolution of species. Recent studies have spotted occurrence of whole-genome duplication provided great insight into many aspects of biology. In this work we investigate possible association of inverse symmetry with whole-genome inverse duplications on genomes. Our findings, through analyses of word-frequency nucleotides and distributions of homologous conserved regions on publicly available complete genomes of 18 archaea and 139 bacteria, are positive. These findings suggest that, first, statistically significant inverse symmetry is found within some prokaryotic genomes. Second, there is inverse symmetry around the replication original and terminal sites on the prokaryotic genomes. The mechanism of generation of inverse symmetry involves whole-genome inverse duplications. Whole-genome inverse duplications have occurred in most prokaryotic chromosomes near original sites and terminal sites. Our research integrates the abundance of knowledge with evolution of genomes and creates a new approach for predicting loci of original sites and terminal sites in prokaryotic chromosomes. Whole-genome inverse duplication events probably are ancient, may have occurred not frequently but probably in more than one incident. Our findings suggest that whole-genome duplication is a great feature of prokaryotic genome evolution. (PDF)

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Development of a Method and its Validation for Estimation of Pregabaline in Pharmaceutical and Bulk Formulation
Halima Akther, Md. Masud Morshed, Md. Mohaiminul Islam, Md. Jonayed Hassan, Barna Piyal Barua and Talha Bin Emran2
e10 |

Simple HPLC isocratic reversed phase method was validated after its development for the analysis of Pregabalin in pharmaceutical and bulk formulations. A C18 5 μm BDS hypersil column (250 mm × 4.6 mm) using phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.9) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 94:6 as a mobile phase was used for the completion of separation. The compound eluted isocratically having flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The wavelength of 210 nm was set in UV detector for the detection of pregabalin. The linearity of the method was maintained within the range of 0.60 - 0.89 μg/ml. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. For the evaluation of the impact of minor changes and for the establishment of appropriate system suitability parameters robustness test also done. According to ICH guidelines, the method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The proposed HPLC method was found specific, accurate as well as precise for the estimation of pregabalin from its pharmaceutical dosages form an also found suitable for routine analysis and quality control of pharmaceutical preparation containing pregabalin active pharmaceutical ingredient. (PDF)

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Evolutionary Tree Based on Oligonucleotide Frequencies and Conserved Words in 16S and 18S Ribosomal RNA
Li-Ching Hsieh, Chih-Yuan Tseng, Liaofu Luo, Mingwen Jia, Fengmin Ji and Hoong-Chien Lee
e11 |

Sequence distances are defined in terms of the differences in the oligonucleotide frequencies of length n. Such n-distances are used to construct phylogenetic trees from a set of thirty-five 16S (18S) rRNA sequences. The quality of the trees generally improves with increasing n and reaches a plateau at n=7 or 8. The best n-distance trees are compatible to trees based on sequence alignment, suggesting that highly overrepresented 7-mers and 8-mers are closely related to rRNA evolution. Out of the 47=16384 7-mers, 612 are identified as those whose relative frequencies correlate strongly with the 35×35 n-distance matrix. These evolution-related 7-mers are used to identify “conservative words”, oligonucleotides whose frequencies and loci are common to at least 85% of organisms preselected to represent a domain. The structural meaning of some of these conservative words is discussed (PDF)

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Rural-urban migration on childhood risk of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) among under-5 children
Kazi Md. Abu/ Kalam Azad and M. Omar Rahman
e12 |

Although the implications of rural-urban migration for socio-economic development are of long­standing interest to social scientists, relatively little is known about the effects of migration on the health of the most vulnerable members of migrants' families-young children under 5 years of age. This study uses a large nationally representative dataset from Bangladesh (Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-(BDHS) 2004) to examine whether rural-urban migrant children are more likely to suffer from Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) than their non­migrant peers (urban non-migrants and rural non-migrants). Even after controlling for potential confounders such as poverty, use of solid fuels, maternal under-nutrition, child under-nutrition, maternal education and maternal age, rural-urban migrant children are significantly more likely to suffer from ARI than non-migrant children (OR: 1.28; 95% C.I. [1.017---1.614]). Interestingly there is no difference in childhood risk of ARI between the two non-migrant groups (rural non­migrants and urban non-migrants) once adjustments are made for household poverty and use of solid fuels. Other potential confounders relating to social networks such as access to health care, knowledge about ARI prevention may help further explain this increased risk but the absence of specific data on these factors is a barrier to forming any definitive conclusion. These results suggest we need to have better information on social networks, health care access and knowledge about prevention to better understand the risk environment of childhood ARI. Moreover couples may want to avoid migration when their children's age is less than five years as they have a high risk of suffering from ARI. (PDF)

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ISSN 2369-2103